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Adenosine DiPhosphate: a nucleotide, C10H15N5O10P2, present in, and vital to the energy processes of, all living cells. During biological oxidations energy is stored in the ATP molecule as ADP is converted to ATP, which later converts back to ADP, releasing the enery needed for muscular contractions, photosynthesis, bioluminescence, biosynthesis, etc.

Adenosine diphosphate is a water-soluble nucleotide which is vital to the continued existence of life. ADP can relinquish a phosphate group to become adenosine monophosphate (AMP) giving out 30.5 kJmol-1 to provide energy for cellular biochemical reactions. During respiration, AMP is phosphorylated to ADP and ADP to ATP.

ADP is a molecule which consists of the nitrogenous base adenine linked to the sugar ribose and which has a chain of two phosphate groups attached to the ribose in a linear fashion. ADP is used as an intermediate throughout glycolysis. ATP hydrolyzes to produce ADP and free energy.

From the BioTech Dictionary at http://biotech.icmb.utexas.edu/. For further information see the BioTech homenode.

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