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If a man have a stubborn or REBELLIOUS SON, of sufficient years & understanding (viz) sixteen years of age, which will not obey the voice of his Father, or the voice of his Mother, and that when they have chastened him will not harken unto them: then shal his Father & Mother being his natural parents, lay hold on him, & bring him to the Magistrates assembled in Court & testifie unto them, that their Son is stubborn & rebellious & will not obey their voice and chastisement, but lives in sundry notorious crimes, such a son shal be put to death. Deut. 21. 20. 21.

- Lauues and Libertye of Massachusetts, 1648

Dost thou not know, my son, with how little wisdom the world is governed?

- Axel Oxenstierna, 1648

Born in 1648: Died in 1648:


Events of 1648:

  • Some of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan's building projects come to fruition:
    • Construction of Agra's Taj Mahal finishes; the gardens will take another five years to complete.
    • The Red Fort in Delhi is completed.
  • Richard Carshaw's play Caritas Nimia, or, The Dear Bargain appears.
  • Robert Herrick's collection of poetry Hesperides is published.
  • Ulisse Aldrovandi's Musaeum metallicum describes the Basilisk but says that fossils are unimportant.
  • Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria founds the French Royal Academy of Painting, featuring Charles Lebrun and the three Le Nain brothers.
  • The Puritan New Model Army comes out on top of the English Civil War.
    • (May) Army Colonel Thomas Horton defeats a Parliamentary faction attempting to take Cardiff.
    • Rainborowe commands the Tower Regiment that takes Colchester on July 29.  He is marching to Yorkshire to take command but the existing commander Sir Henry Chomley is unhappy and Rainborowe has to wait in Doncaster.
    • (August) In Doncaster, a party of Royalists attempts to kidnap Rainborowe; he is killed in the fighting.  The Tower Regiment urges Thomas Fairfax that no treaty with the king is possible.
    • (August 18-19) The Scottish 'Engager' force that Charles I had talked the Covenanters into preparing invades England, but is cut off by Oliver Cromwell's army and scattered near Preston.
    • Upon hearing of the Engagers, Parliament votes to break off all negotiations with Charles.
    • (November) The army issues a 'Remonstrance' to Parliament demanding that Charles be tried.
    • Parliament ignores its previous vote and signs the Newport Treaty with Charles.
    • (December) On Cromwell's orders, Colonel Thomas Pride excludes 100+ members from Parliament.  Not surprisingly, the Rump Parliament that remains votes to try Charles; Pride is the principal judge at the trial.
  • After four years of wrangling, the participants in the Thirty Years' War work out an agreement to end fighting. Large areas of Germany are depopulated.
    • The last battle of the war is on May 17 at Zusmarhausen, between French troops with German allies under Turenne and an Austrian-Bavarian army commanded by Melander1.   Turenne is victorious and Melander is killed.  The Bavarian-Austrian army retreats back across the Inn; from there they are able to hold off the French and the Swedish.
    • Another Swedish army, led by Prince Charles Gustavus, advances through Bohemia, taking part of Prague and laying seige to the rest.  Part of the booty from Prague is a new art collection for Queen Christina.
    • In a separate peace from the main treaty, Spain recognizes the United Provinces of The Netherlands as a sovereign state, but holds onto the remainder.
    • At long last, the Peace of Westphalia is signed in Münster on October 24.
      • The Palatinate's electorship is transferred to Bavaria and a new one is created for the Palatinate.
      • Austria recognizes Switzerland as a sovereign state.  In general, this is the first appearance of the concept of "sovereign states" with defnite borders.
      • The map of Germany is cleaned up, from 1,300 independent entities before the war to 245.
      • The Upper and Lower Palatinates become separate entities.
      • Brandenburg gets East Pomerania.
      • Sweden holds on to West Pomerania (including Stettin and Wismar) and gets 5,000,000 Reichthaler to pay off the Swedish army, which sent its own separate delegate to the Peace Congress.
      • France gets a vague title to Alsace and clear title to Metz, Verdun, and Toul for 3,000,000 livres.
      • The Holy Roman Empire loses the last semblance of being a real political entity; it is an empire in name only.
      • The Scheldt is closed to trade; Amsterdam grows as Antwerp shrinks.
    • Reformation and counter-reformation are essentially over; The Catholic Church will never again possess the political or military strength to conquer the areas that have turned Protestant.
  • Fronde of Parlement: France and Spain are still at war.  Anne Of Austria, Louis XIV's mother, and regent of France, decides to raise money by confiscating the salaries of the Parlement (chief law court) for four years.  Cardinal Mazarin thinks it's a good idea, but Parlement does not, and limits royal pregrogatives.  Anne has members of Parlement arrested, which leads to a general uprising in Paris, led by Prince Armand de Conti.  Regent, cardinal, and seven-year-old king are force to flee to Saint-Germain.  The Peace frees up the French Army.  Marshal Jean Turenne is ordered to return to France to protect against a Spanish invasion from the Spanish Netherlands, but the German auxilliaries refuse to leave Germany; most go home.  Prince Louis de Conde, Conti's brother, surrounds Paris with troops.   He doesn't enter because of the plague.
  • A bloodbath in the Ukraine. (May 15) Cossacks desert the Polish army as an allied Cossack-Tatar force led by Chmielniecki is attacking it at Zlote Wody in Eastern Ukraine.   The Poles are again defeated at Kortun (south of Kiev) on May 26, and Ukraine begins to slip out of Polish control.  Then Wladyslaw dies, and the two principal Polish hetmen are captured by the Cossacks.  A sorry remnant of the Polish army is defeated again at Pilawce (in Podolia) in October.  Large numbers of Ukrainian peasants join Chmielnicki and kill Poles, Ruthenians and Jews when they find them.  Kiev is briefly the capital of an independent state. The Tatars impale captives, and the Poles copy them.
  • Tiring of their sultan's mad excesses, the Janissaries revolt on January 8 and depose Ibrahim I.  Ibrahim waves a Koran at his executioners when they come for him but it does no good.  After Ibrahim's death, 7-year-old Mehmet IV becomes sultan.
  • In Japan, the Shouhou Era enda and the Keian Era begins.
  • The Ottomans begin a seige of Candia in Cyprus which will last for 21 years.
  • Puritan settlers invited to Maryland by Governor William Stone settle in the mid-Chesapeake Bay region. This settlement, named Providence, eventually coalesces on the other side of the Severn River as Annapolis.
  • The first English (Puritan) settlers in the Bahamas.
  • The Spanish having depopulated the Lesser Antilles, Dutch settlers begin arriving there.

1647 - 1648 - 1649

How They Were Made - 17th Century



1Yes, a Calvinist general leading a Catholic army.

The Peace of Westphalia
http://www.pipeline.com/~cwa/Westphalia_Phase.htm

The Avalon Project: The Treaty of Westphalia
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/westphal.htm

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