Monosaccharides (Single Sugars)

  • Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • (CH2)n
  • Characterized by hydroxyl groups and an alehyne or ketone group.
  • Like Hydrocarbons, monosaccharides can be burned to yield CO2 and water. (CH2O)n+nO2 -> (CO2)n + (H2O)n
    • This reaction releases energy which is used in cells
    • Principle energy source for vertebrates is the monosaccharide Glucose. (One mole of glucose releases 673 Kcal by oxidation.)

The simplest sugar; has the general formula of two hydrogen atoms per one oxygen atom and one carbon atom.

A mnemonic exists to help one remember eight six-carbon, ketone monosaccharides:

All Altruists Gladly Make Fruity Gum In Gallon Tanks:

allose, altrose, glucose, mannose, fructose, gulose, idose, galactose (aka lactose), talose

From the BioTech Dictionary at For further information see the BioTech homenode.

Mon`o*sac"cha*ride (?), n. Also - rid . [Mono- + saccharide.] (Chem.)

A simple sugar; any of a number of sugars (including the trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, etc.), not decomposable into simpler sugars by hydrolysis. Specif., as used by some, a hexose. The monosaccharides are all open-chain compounds containing hydroxyl groups and either an aldehyde group or a ketone group.


© Webster 1913

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