Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
There are four general uses for notes: to cite
the individual source
s of the information
from the text
, to make cross-reference
s, to make personal comments
, and to make acknowledgments
should be placed in numerical order at the bottom of the page below a separator; endnotes
are placed at the end of the paper.
The first, full reference of a book should include (if available), in this order:
Title and subtitle
Name of editor, translator, etc.
Number or name of edition (if not the first)
Name of series with volume number
Facts of publication (place, publishing agency, date)
Page number(s) of the citation
Each element of a note reference is separated by comma
s (facts of publication are separated by parentheses
). For example
1. Edward Chiera, They Wrote on Clay, ed. George G. Cameron (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938), 42.
2. Blaise Pascal, Pensees and the Provincial Letters, Modern Library ed. (New York: Random House, 1941), 418.
A reference to an introduction (or anything of the like) by an author other than the author of the book begins with the author of the specific part.
1. Arthur Danhurst, introduction to Calculating the Incalculable, by Samuel Ifferson (Minneapolis: Naughtington Press, 1994), 2-4.
When a reference is followed by another reference to the same work with no intervening references, “Ibid.” may take the place of the as much of the second (or subsequent) reference that is identical. However, Ibid may never take the place of the author’s name or the title.
The first, full reference to an article in a periodical must include (in this order):
Title of article
Title of periodical
Volume or issue number (or both)
1. Cartright C. Bellworthy, “Reform of Congressional Remuneration,” Political Review 7, no. 6 (1990): 89, 93-94.
Magazines are identified by date rather than by volume numbers.
1. Anne B. Fisher, “Ford is Back on the Track,” Fortune, 23 December 1985, 18.
The name and date of the newspaper are sufficient for the reference unless the newspaper is made up of several sections that are individually paginated. In this case, section number/letter, page number, and edition letter are given.
1. Tyler Marshall, “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated,” Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec 1A, p. 3.
The style for plays follows the style for books, except that act, scene, and line numbers are given when necessary.
1. Jean Anouilh, Antigone, ed. Raymond Laubreaux, Classiques de la civilisation francaise, ed. Yves Brunswick and Paul Givestier (Paris: Editions de la Table Ronde, 1946; Didier, 1964), lines 1678-79, p. 87.
For short poems, the title is placed in quotation marks; if the poem is taken from a collection, the title of the collection is italicized or underlined. Note that it may be necessary to obtain permission when quoting the full poem.
The best way to demonstrate the citations of unpublished material, which is a very inclusive category, is to provide examples.
1. Thomas Jefferson, Blank pass for a ship, 1801-1809, DS by Jefferson as president, Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
2. Garnett Duncan, Louisville, Kentucky, to Joel Tanner Hart, Florence Italy, ALS, 12 June 1961, Durrett Collection, Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago.
3. Abraham Lincoln, “Gettysburgh Adress” [final draft], AD [photostat], 19 November 1863, Special Collections, Joseph Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago; original in Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
4. Sandra Landis Gogel, “A Grammar of Old Hebrew” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1985), 46-50.
5. Thomas Foxcroft, “A Seasonal Memento for New Year’s Day” (sermon preached at the Old Church lecture in Boston on 1 January 1746-47), Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven.
The same basic information needed for any publication is needed for electronic documents, either CD-ROMs (and the like) or on-line sources: author and title, name and description of the source cited, type of source, city of publication (if any), publisher or vendor (or both), date of publication or access, and identifying pathway needed for access to the material.
1. Richard D. Lanham, The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts [diskette] (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).
2. William J. Mitchell, City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn [book on-line] (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995, accessed 29 September 1995); available from http://www.mitpress.mit.edu:80/City_of_Bits/Pulling_Glass/index.html; Internet.
Musical Scores and Compositions:
1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano, prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broder, rev. ed. (Bryn Mawr, Pa.: Theodore Presser, 1960), 42.
2. Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony no. 5 in c minor.
Works of Art:
If the work of art is presented in a book, the note is given in the style of the book reference. If not, give the artist’s name, title, medium and support, date, and the name of the institution with location.
1. Pablo Picasso, Crouching Woman, oil drawing on plywood, 1946, Musee Picasso, Antibes.
2. Lorado, Taft, Fountain of Time, steel-reinforced hollow-cast concrete, 1922, Washington Park, west end of Midway Plaisance, Chicago.
When referring to material in another part of the paper, simply refer to the page or note number (or both), in parentheses in the text or in notes. The words “above” and “below” are also used (in law references, “supra” and “infra” are often used instead); the word “see” is often used in the sense of “compare.”
*All examples are taken directly from the text to ensure accuracy.