Film Term:

Film has two basic elements: The base is the clear, perforated strip, and the emulsion is the thin, light-sensitive layer that is glued onto it.

Glossary of Film Terms -
reprinted with permission

In Japanese grammar (depending on who you talk to), the base is what links the verb stem with the verb ending to form the complete verb. There are basically seven bases, and the system for forming bases depends on the type of verb and in some cases what syllable it ends with.

Japanese verbs have a conjugation system totally different from that of English or any other Western language. Japanese moves a great deal of meaning out of linking/helping verbs and grammatical auxiliaries and into the verb. For that reason, Japanese verb usage is best described in terms of bases and endings.

Base 1 is sometimes known as the "Negative Base", because most of the endings used with Base 1 have some negative aspect. This base is required to express concepts such as "without (doing something)", conditional negatives, negative requests, obligations, etc. Base 1 calls for an ending; it cannot be used by itself.

Base 2 used by itself changes a verb to a noun. Also, using a verb in Base 2 with no ending and adding the word mono (thing) forms a new noun that means "things to (verb)", such as tabemono (things to eat) or kaimono (things to buy, i.e. shopping). Base 2 can be used with no ending.

Base 3 is the dictionary form of the verb. It is also the plain present tense (as opposed to the polite present tense, which is more useful for foreigners). Base 3 can also be used with no ending.

Base 4 can be used with several conditional-related endings. Also, Base 4 by itself can be used for abrupt commands, such as "Yame!!" (Stop it!!). Notably, the potential forms (can, can't, able to, etc) require Base 4.

Base 5 is less common than the other bases and few endings require it. The main use is for the informal inclusive command, such as "kaeroo, ne" (let's go home) or the informal inclusive query, such as in "asu mata koyoo ka" (shall we come again tomorrow?).

Base 6 is an important base that is often referred to in textbooks as the TE-form of the verb. Base 6 is used all over the place. With no ending, it allows verbs to be used in series. Example:

Uchi ni kaette, ban-gohan o tabemashita.
I returned home, then had dinner.

Base 6 is used with many common endings, like the desiderative (want), polite request, progressive forms, etc.

Base 7 also has wide usage. By itself it forms the plain past. Endings used with Base 7 aren't easy to classify, but they include cause-and-effect, informal listing of verbs, the concept of just having done something, and others. Base 7 is a major staple of informal speech.

Japanese "verb endings" consist of suffixes, which result in a new word, or additional words which directly follow the verb in the sentence and alter the sense of the verb. For example, the familiar -masu is a suffix ending, but koto ga aru is a common word ending (meaning "had the experience of"). There are many, many possible endings overall.

See the individual bases for information on how to form the base for different verbs and selection of endings. Base-forming information is also given in the individual verb writeups.

(mathematics) In a number system, the base determines the greatest number that can be represented by a single digit, which is one less than the base. The decimal system operates on the base 10 (decimal is Latin for one tenth; deci means 'having ten'), binary on base 2, and hexadecimal on base 16.

Using the examples above, the digits used in binary, decimal, and hexadecimal are 0 and 1, 0 through 9, and 0 through 9 and then A through F, respectively.

Normally we like to write numbers with more than one digit, so digits are multiplied by the base of the system depending on their position from the right end of the number. 0 is used as a placeholder. Thus, 10 in base 2 is the same as 2 in base 10, since the digit 1 has two times (from the base) the value of what it had been if it had been in the rightmost position, where the 0 is.

And no, it is not belong to The Laziest Men On Mars.

Thanks to ariels for certain amendments.

In chemistry, base can be in a way seen as an "opposite" of acid. Acid is any substance that gives out hydrogen ions, base is any substance that takes in them. This is the Brønsted-Lowry theory. Bases have a pH greater than 7. (See pH for an explanation.) There are two groups of bases: the weak bases and the strong bases or alkali.

For example, ammonia is a weak base. An ammonia molecule contains one nitrogen atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms. One pair of electrons in the nitrogen atom is not bonded to hydrogen. Because they're negative in electric charge, the molecule is polar. (See polarity) The pair of electrons attracts positive hydrogen ions from the solution. So, the hydrogen ion bonds to the pair of electrons with a dative bond. The ammonia has taken in hydrogen ions.

Actually this is a simplification. The ammonia molecules is quite stable as is, but some of them take one hydrogen nucleus from water and leave a hydroxide ion behind. The reason why ammonia neutralises acid is that a dative bond to a H+ in an ammonium ion is more stable than it's in an oxonium ion. (Remember, there are no naked protons in an acidic water solution, but H3O+ ions.) When an ammonia molecule hits an oxonium ion, it takes its extra proton and neutralises it to water.

The other group of bases is called alkali or strong bases. They release active hydroxide ions (OH-) to the solution, because they dissociate completely. These ions can react with the hydrogen ions, giving water. Alkalis are stronger bases than the other bases, because the formation of water, the neutralisation, is almost an irreversible reaction, whereas the dative bond to a molecule is relatively easy to reverse. Examples: sodium hydroxide, other alkali hydroxides, earth alkali metal hydroxides.

A base is a fundamental category of many compounds whose water-based solutions have a bitter taste, a slippery feel in water, turn red litmus paper blue, and can react with acids to form salts. A base, also known as an alkali, has a pH higher than 7; a strong base will have a pH of 13 or higher.

Specific types of bases include:

  1. Arrhenius base: any chemical that increases the number of free hydroxide ions (OH-) when they're added to a water-based solution. The more ions produced, the stronger the acid.

  2. Brönsted or Brönsted-Lowry base: any chemical that acts as a proton acceptor in a chemical reaction.

  3. Lewis base: any chemical that donates two electrons to form a covalent bond during a chemical reaction.

In biology, "base" also refers to a nitrogenous base, which is a nitrogen-containing molecule having the chemical properties of an alkali. Examples include adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.

From the BioTech Dictionary at For further information see the BioTech homenode.

A form of skydiving often involving illegal and risky jumps from buildings, antennae, spans or earth (hence the name B.A.S.E.). Generally, the fall is much shorter than a traditional sky dive, which means the parachute must be thrown much earlier. Because of the increase in danger, traditional skydiving should be mastered first and the first jumps should always be accompanied by a veteran. B.A.S.E. jumping, while risky can be a very fun sport, but safety should be a major concern before attempting any jumping.

In database theory, BASE is a (contrived) term coined by Professor Eric Brewer, UC Berkeley (see also CAP theorem) to contrast the principles of massively scalable distributed databases with the ACID principles of the relational database model.

BASE, expands (awkwardly) to:

  • Basically Available
    which means, things mostly work, but it's OK if they time out or fail sometimes, because 100% success is not mission-critical.
  • Soft-state
    which means you might make a change, and then a later query might get an older answer (from a different database server). The application, not the database, determines how to handle this.
  • Eventual consistency
    which means that the system will eventually reach a consistent state, perhaps during a slow time or during a scheduled roll-up operation.

BASE, then, favors availability and performance, as opposed to ACID, which favors consistency and isolation.

BASE is important for Internet-based businesses which need massively scalable databases which are responsive under very large user load. A typical example is a large on-line retailer, which may have enormous numbers of on-line sessions at any time. Each active user may have a 'shopping cart', a list of items which they wish to buy. For such a use case, the strict ACID requirements of a relational database are overkill. In particular, the 'C' of ACID, consistency, does not have to be delivered immediately, so long as it arrives eventually. For an ephemeral entity like a shopping cart, it may not be needed at all. In the worst case, if a database server goes down, the customer's session refreshes from an older database and their cart may drop a recent change. They'll be annoyed, but it's not going to cause serious harm. It's more important that the cart always be available, and that the shopping app be responsive. Thus BASE principles are employed instead. The recent emergence of 'NoSQL' databases supports this need.

Node your homework for BQ'16 278


Base (?), a. [OE. bass, F. bas, low, fr. LL. bassus thick, fat, short, humble; cf. L. Bassus, a proper name, and W. bas shallow. Cf. Bass a part in music.]


Of little, or less than the usual, height; of low growth; as, base shrubs.




Low in place or position.




Of humble birth; or low degree; lowly; mean.

[Archaic] "A pleasant and base swain."



Illegitimate by birth; bastard.


Why bastard? wherefore base? Shak.


Of little comparative value, as metal inferior to gold and silver, the precious metals.


Alloyed with inferior metal; debased; as, base coin; base bullion.


Morally low. Hence: Low-minded; unworthy; without dignity of sentiment; ignoble; mean; illiberal; menial; as, a base fellow; base motives; base occupations.

"A cruel act of a base and a cowardish mind." Robynson (More's Utopia). "Base ingratitude."



Not classical or correct.

"Base Latin."



Deep or grave in sound; as, the base tone of a violin.

[In this sense, commonly written bass.]

10. Law

Not held by honorable service; as, a base estate, one held by services not honorable; held by villenage. Such a tenure is called base, or low, and the tenant, a base tenant.

Base fee, formerly, an estate held at the will of the lord; now, a qualified fee. See note under Fee, n., 4. -- Base metal. See under Metal.

Syn. -- Dishonorable; worthless; ignoble; low-minded; infamous; sordid; degraded. -- Base, Vile, Mean. These words, as expressing moral qualities, are here arranged in the order of their strength, the strongest being placed first. Base marks a high degree of moral turpitude; vile and mean denote, in different degrees, the want of what is valuable or worthy of esteem. What is base excites our abhorrence; what is vile provokes our disgust or indignation; what is mean awakens contempt. Base is opposed to high-minded; vile, to noble; mean, to liberal or generous. Ingratitude is base; sycophancy is vile; undue compliances are mean.


© Webster 1913.

Base, n. [F. base, L. basis, fr. Gr. a stepping step, a base, pedestal, fr. to go, step, akin to E. come. Cf. Basis, and see Come.]


The bottom of anything, considered as its support, or that on which something rests for support; the foundation; as, the base of a statue.

"The base of mighty mountains."



Fig.: The fundamental or essential part of a thing; the essential principle; a groundwork.

3. Arch. (a)

The lower part of a wall, pier, or column, when treated as a separate feature, usually in projection, or especially ornamented.


The lower part of a complete architectural design, as of a monument; also, the lower part of any elaborate piece of furniture or decoration.

4. Bot.

That extremity of a leaf, fruit, etc., at which it is attached to its support.

<-- p. 122 -->

5. Chem.

The positive, or non-acid component of a salt; a substance which, combined with an acid, neutralizes the latter and forms a salt; -- applied also to the hydroxides of the positive elements or radicals, and to certain organic bodies resembling them in their property of forming salts with acids.

6. Pharmacy

The chief ingredient in a compound.

7. Dyeing

A substance used as a mordant.


8. Fort.

The exterior side of the polygon, or that imaginary line which connects the salient angles of two adjacent bastions.

9. Geom.

The line or surface constituting that part of a figure on which it is supposed to stand.

10. Math.

The number from which a mathematical table is constructed; as, the base of a system of logarithms.

11. [See Base low.]

A low, or deep, sound. Mus. (a) The lowest part; the deepest male voice. (b) One who sings, or the instrument which plays, base.

[Now commonly written bass.]

The trebles squeak for fear, the bases roar. Dryden.

12. Mil.

A place or tract of country, protected by fortifications, or by natural advantages, from which the operations of an army proceed, forward movements are made, supplies are furnished, etc.

13. Mil.

The smallest kind of cannon.


14. Zool.

That part of an organ by which it is attached to another more central organ.

15. Crystallog.

The basal plane of a crystal.

16. Geol.

The ground mass of a rock, especially if not distinctly crystalline.

17. Her.

The lower part of the field. See Escutcheon.


The housing of a horse.


19. pl.

A kind of skirt ( often of velvet or brocade, but sometimes of mailed armor) which hung from the middle to about the knees, or lower.



The lower part of a robe or petticoat.



An apron.

[Obs.] "Bakers in their linen bases."



The point or line from which a start is made; a starting place or a goal in various games.

To their appointed base they went. Dryden.

23. Surv.

A line in a survey which, being accurately determined in length and position, serves as the origin from which to compute the distances and positions of any points or objects connected with it by a system of triangles.



A rustic play; -- called also prisoner's base, prison base, or bars.

"To run the country base."


25. Baseball

Any one of the four bounds which mark the circuit of the infield.

Altern base. See under Altern. -- Attic base. Arch. See under Attic. -- Base course. Arch. (a) The first or lower course of a foundation wall, made of large stones of a mass of concrete; -- called also foundation course. (b) The architectural member forming the transition between the basement and the wall above. -- Base hit Baseball, a hit, by which the batsman, without any error on the part of his opponents, is able to reach the first base without being put out. -- Base line. (a) A main line taken as a base, as in surveying or in military operations. (b) A line traced round a cannon at the rear of the vent. -- Base plate, the foundation plate of heavy machinery, as of the steam engine; the bed plate. -- Base ring Ordnance, a projecting band of metal around the breech, connected with the body of the gun by a concave molding. H. L. Scott.


© Webster 1913.

Base (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Based (); p. pr. & vb. n. Basing.] [From Base, n.]

To put on a base or basis; to lay the foundation of; to found, as an argument or conclusion; -- used with on or upon.



© Webster 1913.

Base, v. t. [See Base, a., and cf. Abase.]


To abase; to let, or cast, down; to lower.


If any . . . based his pike. Sir T. North.


To reduce the value of; to debase.


Metals which we can not base. Bacon.


© Webster 1913.

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