A co-operative quartet, almost a Dream Team of the circa-1970 avant-garde, in retrospect. Chick Corea and Dave Holland, from the free jazz nucleus hidden inside Miles Davis' electric band; Barry Altschul, a drummer from Paul Bley's trio, and Anthony Braxton of the Creative Construction Company. They made some great recordings, for Sony, ECM, and Blue Note Records, but to little acclaim (or ¢a$h Money); Corea left, in search of The Big Payday. Ka-ching!

In both traditional and modern mythology, from the Iliad to Twin Peaks, an unbroken circle is a symbol of unity, purity, and eternity. It is generally associated (in dualistic morality plays) with the good guys.

It appears often in heraldry (most notably in the form of the Roman wreath - the circular bundle of sticks that give fascism its name).

In the legend of camelot, the table of King Arthur and his knights is an unbroken circle. The halo of angels and other judeo-christian blessed beings is traditionally circular. In Blade Runner, the unbroken circle of the human (or replicant) eye is a recurring motif. The list goes on and on...

in terms of magic work, a circle is the area of sacred space in which magic work is done. Circles can be "called"/invoked/set up in many different ways, but the common standard is to call each of the elements (with calling the watchtowers being the most used there), then bind the four energies together. A "physical" circle may be drawn in the air, from point to point, with a hand, wand, staff, or athame, although this is not necessary as the circle can be completed (as well as started) mentally. Once a circle is in place, it should not be broken until you release the elements. if people need to enter or exit the circle, a "doorway" should be cut (this is usually done with an athame.) After the spell or ritual is finished, the circle should be released as it was called, first unbinding the weave, then releasing and thanking each element in turn.

One of the fundamental shapes in geometry. The unit circle can be described by the equation x2+y2=1; in other words, every pair of real numbers (x,y) which satisfy this equation corresponds to a point (x,y) on the edge of the unit circle. When speaking of circles, it is common to mention only the radius, since every circle has symmetry to a high degree. Below, I use R to denote the radius of the circle. R=24chars.

            ,.szF'`             `'Tux.,
          ,z'`                       `'c,
        ,x'`                           `'w,
      .u'`                               `'n.
     dy                                     qb
    /7                                       VA
   4y                                         VD
  ,I'                                         `U,
  dp                                           qb
 ,j'                                           `t,
 AV                                  R          VA
 69                      .______________________96
 VA                                             AV
 `t,                                           ,j'
  qb                                           dp
  `I,                                         ,U'
   \D                                         4y
    VA                                       /7
     qb                                     dy
      `'n.                               .u'`
        `'w,                           ,x'`
          `'c,                       ,z'`
            `'Tux.,             ,.szF'`

The above circle was formed using the pythagorean triple (5,12,13), i.e. the points (5/13,12/13), (12/13,5/13), (-5/13,12/13), (-12/13,5/13), (5/13,-12/13), (12/13,-5/13), (-5/13,-12/13) and (-12/13,-5/13).

Some properties of any circle of radius R centered on the origin:


x2+y2=R2 is the generating equation; letting x=R*cos(t) and y=R*sin(t) for angles t will also generate the circle (all points (x,y) on the edge of said circle).

Formulae vital to the geometric aspect of a circle:

  • Circumfrence: c = {pi} * d
  • Area: a = {pi} * r^2
  • Diameter: d = 2r

    Arc Length - The distance from one point on the circumference to another point on the circumference traveling along the edge of the circle.

  • L = m / 360(deg) * c

  • Where:
  • r = radius
  • d = diameter
  • {pi} = 3.14159265358979323846... ~ 22/7
  • c = circumference
  • a = area
  • m = measure of the central angle
  • A stand-up video of Eddie Izzard available on VHS and DVD. The latter (along with the DVD of Dress to Kill) also contains footage of the (arguably better) Dress to Circle, which features Eddie Izzard performing nearly an hour's worth of stand-up comedy in French. The impressive part is Izzard's Indian, English and American accents, all spoken in French.

    The main video (Filmed in America) is filmed on better cameras in front of a much bigger audience with a lot of people in the credits, which kind of shows how America does things bigger in general. It was filmed in New York on the 26th of June 2000.

    The video shows how Izzard was clearly gaining popularity in America at the time, but it's still nice to watch the earlier ones which feel somehow more real, as they are less professional. Either way you're pretty much guaranteed to laugh all the way through it.

    Useful information about circles:

    Standard Form:		(x-h)²+(y-k)²=r²
    Eccentricity:		e=0
    Center:			(h,k)
    Diameter:		2r
    Parametric Form:	x′=rsin(t) or	x′=rcos(t)
    			y′=rcos(t) 	y′=rsin(t)

    See also:

    Cir"cle (?), n. [OE. cercle, F. cercle, fr. L. circulus (Whence also AS. circul), dim. of circus circle, akin to Gr. , , circle, ring. Cf. Circus, Circum-.]


    A plane figure, bounded by a single curve line called its circumference, every part of which is equally distant from a point within it, called the center.


    The line that bounds sush a figure; a circumference; a ring.

    3. Astron.

    An instrument of observation, the graduated limb of which consists of an entire circle.

    When it is fixed to a wall in an observatory, it is called a mural circle; when mounted with a telescope on an axis and in Y's, in the plane of the meridian, a meridian or transit circle; when involving the principle of reflection, like the sextant, a reflecting circle; and when that of repeating an angle several times continuously along the graduated limb, a repeating circle.


    A round body; a sphere; an orb.

    It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth. Is. xi. 22.


    Compass; circuit; inclosure.

    In the circle of this forest. Shak.


    A company assembled, or conceived to assemble, about a central point of interest, or bound by a common tie; a class or division of society; a coterie; a set.

    As his name gradually became known, the circle of his acquaintance widened. Macaulay.


    A circular group of persons; a ring.


    A series ending where it begins, and repeating itself.

    Thus in a circle runs the peasant's pain. Dryden.

    9. Logic

    A form of argument in which two or more unproved statements are used to prove each other; inconclusive reasoning.

    That heavy bodies descend by gravity; and, again, that gravity is a quality whereby a heavy body descends, is an impertinent circle and teaches nothing. Glanvill.


    Indirect form of words; circumlocution.


    Has he given the lie, In circle, or oblique, or semicircle. J. Fletcher.


    A territorial division or district.

    The Circles of the Holy Roman Empire, ten in number, were those principalities or provinces which had seats in the German Diet.

    Azimuth circle. See under Azimuth. -- Circle of altitude Astron., a circle parallel to the horizon, having its pole in the zenith; an almucantar. -- Circle of curvature. See Osculating circle of a curve (Below). -- Circle of declination. See under Declination. -- Circle of latitude. (a) Astron. A great circle perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, passing through its poles. (b) Spherical Projection A small circle of the sphere whose plane is perpendicular to the axis. -- Circles of longitude, lesser circles parallel to the ecliptic, diminishing as they recede from it. -- Circle of perpetual apparition, at any given place, the boundary of that space around the elevated pole, within which the stars never set. Its distance from the pole is equal to the latitude of the place. -- Circle of perpetual occultation, at any given place, the boundary of the space around the depressed pole, within which the stars never rise. -- Circle of the sphere, a circle upon the surface of the sphere, called a great circle when its plane passes through the center of the sphere; in all other cases, a small circle. -- Diurnal circle. See under Diurnal. -- Dress circle, a gallery in a theater, generally the one containing the prominent and more expensive seats. -- Druidical circles Eng. Antiq., a popular name for certain ancient inclosures formed by rude stones circularly arranged, as at Stonehenge, near Salisbury. -- Family circle, a gallery in a theater, usually one containing inexpensive seats. -- Horary circles Dialing, the lines on dials which show the hours. -- Osculating circle of a curve Geom., the circle which touches the curve at some point in the curve, and close to the point more nearly coincides with the curve than any other circle. This circle is used as a measure of the curvature of the curve at the point, and hence is called circle of curvature. -- Pitch circle. See under Pitch. -- Vertical circle, an azimuth circle. -- Voltaic circle or circuit. See under Circuit. -- To square the circle. See under Square.

    Syn. -- Ring; circlet; compass; circuit; inclosure.


    © Webster 1913.

    Cir"cle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Circled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Circling (?).] [OE. cerclen, F. cercler, fr. L. circulare to make round. See Circle, n., and cf. Circulate.]


    To move around; to revolve around.

    Other planets circle other suns. Pope.


    To encompass, as by a circle; to surround; to inclose; to encircle.

    Prior. Pope.

    Their heads are circled with a short turban. Dampier.

    So he lies, circled with evil. Coleridge.

    To circle in, to confine; to hem in; to keep together; as, to circle bodies in.

    Sir K. Digby.


    © Webster 1913.

    Cir"cle, v. i.

    To move circularly; to form a circle; to circulate.

    Thy name shall circle round the gaping through. Byron.


    © Webster 1913.

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